Non-ferrous metals are produced from a variety of primary and secondary raw materials. Primary raw materials are derived from ores that are mined and then further treated either through hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy or combination of both to produce pure metals or metal compounds. Secondary raw materials are scrap, ash, residues, cakes, spent catalysts etc.

Recycling constitutes an important component of the raw material supplies of a number of metals. Copper, aluminium, lead, zinc, precious metals and refractory metals, among others, can be recovered from secondary resources and can be returned to the production process without loss of quality in recycling. Overall, secondary raw materials account for a high proportion of the production, thus reducing the consumption of raw materials and energy.

Hydromet Solutions team has significant experience in design and development of flowsheet for extracting metals both from primary and secondary resources.


Our experts have designed numerous commercial plants utilizing both hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical techniques.